Government and politics

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Main articles: Government and politics in Sri Lanka
The Constitution of Sri Lanka establishes a democratic unitary state of the Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. The government is a mix of presidential and parliamentary system. The President of the nation is also head of state, commander in chief of the armed forces and president of the government and is popularly elected for a term of six years. In exercising its duties, the President is accountable to Parliament is a unicameral legislature of 225 representatives. The President appoints his cabinet of ministers among the elected deputies. The Prime Minister heads the ruling party in the House and shares many executive responsibilities, mainly in domestic affairs.
Deputies are elected by universal suffrage. Representatives are elected every six years. Parliamentary representation is based on a proportional system for districts with a particular rule: the party that receives the most vote in each constituency wins also a special seat. ” The president can summon, suspend or close a legislative session and dissolve Parliament at any time after its first year of sessions. Parliament has legislative power.
On July 1, 1960, the people of Sri Lanka elected the first woman in the government of Prime Minister Bandaranaike Srimavo. Her daughter Chandrika Kumaratunga has served in various governments as the first minister and as president from 1999 to 2005. The current president Mahinda Rajapaksa, who took office on November 21, 2005. Ratnasiri Wickremanayake is now the prime minister from the same date.
Sri Lanka has enjoyed the longest period of parliamentary democracy in a non-Western countries. Politics in Sri Lanka is controlled by rival coalitions led by the Freedom Party of Sri Lanka, a grouping of the Left, led by President Rajapaksa, and the United National Party, located in the center-right led by former prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe. There are other minor parties such as the Buddhist party, the Socialist Party and the nationalist parties who oppose the Tamil separatism of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam but demand regional autonomy and greater rights. Since 1948, Sri Lanka is a member of the United Nations. Also part of the Non-Aligned Movement, the Colombo Plan, the Forum of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and the South Asia Association for Regional Cooperation.
During the Cold War, Sri Lanka followed a foreign policy of neutrality, their positions closer to the United States and Western Europe. The Armed Forces of Sri Lanka, under the Ministry of Defense, is composed of the Army, Navy and the Sri Lankan forces Ventilate. Since the eighties, the Army has directed the government’s response against the Marxist militants of the JVP and now the militant forces of the group the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. Sri Lanka receives considerable military assistance to Pakistan, China, USA and the UK.

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