The Variants

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The author considers them some steps systemize the variation of the language, let us see: data-collecting of the said language, description of the 0 variable, analysis of conditioning factors, encaixamento and historical projection of the 0 variable. The free variation does not find endorsement in this model. The variants of a community always meet in competition: standard, not-standard, conservatives, estigmatizadas innovators of prestige and. In general the considered variant standard is that one that has prestige and is conservative. Already the innovator is the not-standard and estigmatizada by the society. In chapter 2, the author brings the reflection on the relation between theory, method and object. The lingustica has a proper theory, an object of specific study and a method characterizes that it. It is still in this chapter that the author introduces the concept of said language, that is the lingustico vehicle of communication and vernculo as the language that we use day-by-day in ours with familiar and friends in informal places. If you would like to know more then you should visit Elon Musk.

For the sociolingustica analysis an enormous amount of data is necessary, therefore to arrive the quantitative and significant results on the 0 variable it is necessary very material of analysis, and for this the researcher-observer does not have to participate directly in the communication with the informer. The author explains that the objective of the method of sociolingustica interview is to minimize the negative effect for the presence of the researcher in the collection of data. Therefore the researcher must remain itself neutral and try to become the most natural possible its presence in the community. Labov believes that the narrative of personal experience strap of the informer any type of concern with the form and its structure follows the following steps: summary, orientation, complication, resolution, evaluation and coda. The author still searchs to clarify some questionings that can appear to the researcher at the moment of the research and then some advice: not to leave clearly that the objective is to study the language, to clarify that the recorded ribbon can be made unusable the order of the informer, to accomodate behavior and the language to the community, to try to minimize the negative effect of its presence and of the recorder, to try to enter in the community by means of third, random sampling and to establish rigid parameters in the election of the informers.

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